**Quantum Optics INRIM**

## Quantum Imaging and Sensing

Quantum imaging and sensing aim at exploiting entanglement and quantum correlation to step over classical limitation in sensitivity and resolution. Conventional optical measurements are affected by fundamental limits that comes from the quantum fluctuation of the optical field. Shot noise turns out from the discretization of the energy in photons and from the randomness of the photon emission from conventional (classical) sources. However, quantum mechanics does not prevent to build sources which are more stable, e.g. producing a regular stream of equidistant photons or entangled beams where photons are perfectly correlated in any degree of freedom. Engineering these states, manipulate and efficiently detect them, allows to reduce uncertainty in measurements and to go beyond classical paradigms such as the Rayleigh diffraction limit and shot-noise limit.

In the group, we have realized several “first” experimental demonstration of quantum imaging and sensing protocols: wide field sub shot noise imaging and microscopy without resorting to post-selection; quantum enhanced target detection in a preponderant background, known as ‘quantum illumination’; super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with photon antibunching from NV centers; absolute calibration of CCD cameras by quantum correlations; quantum reading and lossy channel discrimination. We also enjoy exploring possible real application of quantum inspired techniques, for example ‘ghost imaging’.

## Recent highlights

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## Most relevant pubblications

G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. Ruo-Berchera, Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging, Nature Photonics 4, 227- 230 (2010).

Lopaeva, E. D., Ruo Berchera, I., Degiovanni, I. P., Olivares, S., Brida, G., and Genovese, M., Experimental Realization of Quantum Illumination, Phys.Rev. Lett.

**110**, 153603 (2013).

Ruo Berchera I., Degiovanni, I. P., Olivares, S., Genovese, M., Quantum Light in Coupled Interferometers for Quantum Gravity Tests, Phys. Rev. Lett.

**110**, 21360 (2013). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.213601.

D. Gatto Monticone, K. Katamadze, P. Traina, E. Moreva, J. Forneris, I. Ruo-Berchera, P. Olivero, I.P. Degiovanni, G. Brida,M. Genovese, "Beating the Abbe Diffraction Limit in Confocal Microscopy via Nonclassical Photon Statistics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 143602 (2014).

Meda A., Caprile A., Avella A., Ruo Berchera I., Degiovanni I.P., Magni A., Genovese M. Magneto-optical imaging technique for hostile environments: The ghost imaging approach Applied Physics Letters 106 (26), 262405 (2015).

Avella, A., Ruo-Berchera, I., Degiovanni, I. P., Brida, G., Genovese, M., Absolute calibration of an EMCCD camera by quantum correlation, linking photon counting to the analog regime, Optics Lett. 41(8), 1841-1844 (2016);

Samantaray, N., Ruo-Berchera, I., Meda, A., Genovese, M., Realization of the first sub-shot-noise wide field microscope, Light: Science & Applications 6, e17005 (2017);

Meda, A., Losero, E., Samantaray, N., Scafitimuto F., Pradyumna S., Avella A., Ruo-Berchera, I., Genovese, M. Photon-number correlation for quantum enhanced imaging and sensing, 19(9), 094002(2017);

E Losero, I Ruo-Berchera, A Meda, A Avella, M Genovese, Unbiased estimation of an optical loss at the ultimate quantum limit with twin-beams, Scientific Reports

**8**, 7431 (2018).

Ruo-Berchera, IP Degiovanni, Quantum imaging with sub-Poissonian light: challenges and perspectives in optical metrology, Metrologia

**56**, 024001(2019).

E Losero, I Ruo-Berchera, A Meda, A Avella, O Sambataro, M Genovese, Quantum differential ghost microscopy, Physical Review A 100 (6), 063818 (2019)

I Ruo-Berchera, A Meda, E Losero, A Avella, N Samantaray, M Genovese, Improving resolution-sensitivity trade off in sub-shot noise quantum imaging, Applied Physics Letters 116 (21), 214001(2020).

Pradyumna, S.T., Losero, E., Ruo-Berchera, I. et al. Twin beam quantum-enhanced correlated interferometry for testing fundamental physics. Commun Phys 3, 104 (2020).

G Ortolano, E Losero, S Pirandola, M Genovese, I. Ruo-Berchera, "Experimental quantum reading with photon counting" Sci. Adv. 2021; 7 : eabc7796 (2021),