**Quantum Optics INRIM**

## Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

The advent of the new millennium represented a crucial turn point for physics, which saw the evolution between the first and second quantum revolution materialize.

This sweeping change is now steering the research in Quantum Mechanics, the well-established mathematical clockwork whose strength and accuracy in predictions are currently experienced in worldwide experimental laboratories, towards new horizons, the most futuristic of which is the quantum computer.

This transition has been possible thanks to the proactive interlacing between great progress achieved by scientists towards the very deep understanding of the fundamental concepts of quantum physics and the consequent dawn and development of quantum technology and engineering.

Nowadays, the practical capability to measure, control and manipulate quantum systems at individual single-particle level is at our fingertips, representing a basic experimental resource to be exploited in all those fields of investigation as quantum metrology and sensing, quantum imaging, quantum control and quantum communication. It is on the route of development of such quantum technology tools that the scientific community investigates the possibility of expanding our ability to the manipulation of even larger numbers of quantum entangled states.

However, as it naturally should be, our human comprehension of reality remains partial and veiled. In fact, notwithstanding with its impressive mathematical capacity, a long debated argument is even revolving on the fascinating facets of the foundational axioms of quantum theory, the main matters of the dispute being the non-local aspects of entanglement and quantum correlations, the ontological nature of the wave function and its collapse, the state measurement in quantum mechanics, the macro-objectivation problem (i.e. the transition from a microscopic probabilistic world to a macroscopic deterministic world described by classical mechanics).

Being this the contemporary scenario, in which on one side quantum mechanics seems to have approached a level of complete maturity, while on the other fundamental questions are still open, in the arena of the answers that are yet have been found, quantum optics plays, as it always has, an avant-garde role. All these reasons pushed, from its very beginnings, the INRIM Quantum Optics Group to focus on the inspiring and productive research field represented by Quantum Mechanics Foundations.

## Highlights

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## Most relevant pubblications

S VirzĂ¬, E Rebufello, A Avella, F Piacentini, M Gramegna, I.Ruo-Berchera, I. P. Degiovanni & M. Genovese "Optimal estimation of entanglement and discord in two-qubit states" Scientific Reports 9 (1), 1-9 (2019).

E Moreva, M Gramegna, G Brida, L Maccone, M Genovese "Quantum time: Experimental multitime correlations" Physical Review D 96 (10), 102005 (2017)

E. Moreva, G. Brida, M. Gramegna, S. Bose, D. Home, and M. Genoves. "Bell measurements as a witness of a dualism in entanglement" Physical Review A 91 (6), 062117 (2015)

E Moreva, G Brida, M Gramegna, V Giovannetti, L Maccone, M Genovese "Time from quantum entanglement: an experimental illustration" Physical Review A 89 (5), 052122 (2014)

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese. "Separable Schmidt modes of a nonseparable state" Physical Review A 89 (2), 023808 (2014)

C. Benedetti, A.P. Shurupov, M.G.A. Paris, G. Brida, M. Genovese. "Experimental estimation of quantum discord for a polarization qubit and the use of fidelity to assess quantum correlations" Physical Review A 87 (5), 052136 (2013)

Yu. I. Bogdanov, G. Brida, I. D. Bukeev, M. Genovese, K. S. Kravtsov, S. P. Kulik, E. V. Moreva, A. A. Soloviev, and A. P. Shurupov "Statistical estimation of the quality of quantum-tomography protocols" Physical Review A 84 (4), 042108 (2011)

M. Genovese "Interpretations of quantum mechanics and measurement problem" Advanced Science Letters 3 (3), 249-258 (2010)

G Brida, IP Degiovanni, A Florio, M Genovese, P Giorda, A Meda, Matteo G. A. Paris, and Alexander Shurupov. "Experimental estimation of entanglement at the quantum limit" Physical review letters 104 (10), 100501 (2010)

M. Roncaglia, A. Montorsi, M. Genovese "Bipartite entanglement of quantum states in a pair basis" Physical Review A 90 (6), 062303 (2010)